Engineering Parametric Study on the Milling and Extraction of Rotenone and Rotenoids from Derris elliptica
Author : Monterola, Conrado Pineda
Major Adviser : Acda, Reynaldo I.
Committee Members : Arquiza, Apollo C.; Movillon, Jovita A.
Year : 1993
Month : October
Type : Thesis
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The effects of moisture content on milling and of solvent – root ratio and extraction time on extraction of rotenone from Derris elliptica root using chloroform as solvent was evaluated. In the same time, the Rettinger’s constant, the underflow locus plot, the energy requirement of vacuum evaporation and the overall material and energy balance were evaluated to determine the efficiency of the production process.
Drying the Derris root for two weeks instead of one week does not significantly reduce the net and overall significantly reduce the net and overall power requirement of course milling but it does significantly reduce the fine millling’s power requirements. Reducing the moisture content from 30.20% to 8.98 % significantly reduced the energy requirement of fine milling. The Rittinger’s constant fro Derris root fine milling was found to be 39.04 HP.s. mm/kg.
The extraction ability of chloroform, measured in terms of the % rotenone extracted, was significantly affected by solvent-root ratio. Generally, optimum solvent-root ratio was observed to be between 15 to 20 mL/g and the study predicted it to be 18 mL/g Derris root.
Different values of extraction time (12, 24 and 48 hours) were tested for its effect on extraction yield. It is found out that extraction yield increases with extraction time but its rate of increase decreases with extraction time. The optimum extraction time was observed to be between 24 to 48 hrs and the study predicted it to be 40 hrs.
Graphical response surface analysis identify the true optimum point for he extraction to be within the range of values tested. The highest value for the %rotenone yield (0.5480%) occurred at a point where the curve was continuous and could be considered as the absolute maximum point, however, the point lies on the middle right portion of the parameters considered (ideally it should be on the center) and the prediction was limited by the accuracy of Goodhue Colorimetric Method.
The retention ratio varies from 6.5 to 3.5 mL/g Derris root with an average, from all trials, of 5mL/g Derris root. This may be due to varying solvent losses due to evaporation cause by varying ambient temperature and relative humidity during extraction and filtration.
The linear regression equation for energy requirement for vacuum evaporation is KwH = 0.0188 + 3.37 x 10⁻⁵ v. where v is the volume of solution to be concentrated in mL. The equation has a correlation coefficient of 0.886. For volume of chloroform recovered (Vr) the equation is Vr = -114.44 + 0.757v. The correlation coefficient recovered is determined to be 65.92%.
Further studies are recommended, using parameter values beyond the range considered in this study and using analytical method more accurate than the Goodhue colorimetric method, to confirm the optimum conditions arrived at this study. Also, techniques that reduce the evaporation losses of solvent should be applied to produce a more precise and accurate underflow locus and pressing of the underflow (residue) of filtration is recommended to increase the efficiency of rotenone extraction and chloroform recovery. Other solvent systems may be considered to find if it has significant effect on extraction of rotenone and rotenoids.
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