Optimization Study on Solvent Extraction of Oil from Petroleum Nuts (Pittosporum resinferum Hemsl.) using Ethanol as Solvent
Author : Guting, Rose Angelie Lime
Major Adviser : Borines, Myra G.
Committee Members : Detras, Monet Concepcion M.; Migo-Sumagang, Maria Victoria P.
Year : 2017
Month : December
Type : Thesis
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The solvent extraction of petroleum nut oil by soaking method (Pittosporum resinferum Hemsl.) using ethanol as solvent, was studied and optimized. The petroleum nuts used were deseeded, dried and sized reduced to an upper limit of 0.5 cm. The parameters that were considered in the optimization study were operating temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio. The minimum operating temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio used were 40 ̊C and 2:1 (v/wt), respectively, while the maximum were 60 ̊C and 5:1 (v/wt), correspondingly. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the system. The generated model was found to be significant. The significant terms in the model are operating temperature, solvent-to-nut ratio, the interaction of operating temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio and the quadratic terms of temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio. The maximum oil yield obtained was 16.37 ± 0.63 % at operating temperature and solvent-to- nut ratio of 60 ̊C and 5:1, respectively. Using numerical optimization, the suggested optimum conditions when temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio were minimized (optimum A) were found to be at 47.81 ̊C and solvent-to-nut ratio of 2:1 with 11.6272 % oil yield. Moreover, if the goals were set such that the temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio are in range and the oil yield was maximized (optimum B), the suggested optimum conditions were temperature and solvent-to-nut ratio of 58.26 ̊C and 5:1, respectively with oil yield of 15.6464 %. Preliminary costing was done to compare the extraction cost per gram of the optimum conditions and the result showed that optimum A (40.63 PhP) should be selected since it has unit extraction cost of around 6 PhP lower than Optimum B (46.53 PhP). A confirmatory test was carried out to verify the validity of the equation generated by the Design Expert Software. Applying the two-tailed T-test, the result showed that the actual oil yield from the confirmatory test and predicted oil yield had no significant difference, thus, the equation generated by the software is reliable in predicting the optimum conditions for the solvent extraction of petroleum nut oil.
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