Small-scale Soap Production using Cold Process: Preliminary Testing on the Effect of Temperature and Cost Analysis
Author : Gamba, Evangeline B.
Major Adviser : Lozada, Ernesto P.
Committee Members : Hernandez, Heidiliza P.; Manoto, Russel D.
Year : 1994
Month : April
Type : Thesis
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The study aimed to verify the viability of small scale soap manufacturing using the cold process. An attempt to determine the effect of temperature the soap formation using three levels, 27°C, 35°C, and 40°C was made.
Three trials were made for each temperature. Due to the inconsistency of the data obtained on the 35°C and 40°C run, no conclusion can be made for the effect of temperature on the soap formation except for the fact that soap done at 27°C have a finer texture. The helical screw was found to be an effective type of agitator because minimal vortex formation was observed during the mixing.
Three trial runs were made using a 50-liter kettle to obtain some technical coefficients needed for the cost analysis. The crude oil used had 0.2 % free fatty acid and 85 % transmittance.
Nine and six tenths (9.6) liter sodium hydroxide solution (36 Be’) was slowly poured (20 minutes) to the 20 liter oil with continuous stirring. the stirring time was one hour. The still liquid mixture was then placed on the molder and stored for seven days. From this mixture almost 55 bars were produced which confirmed with ITDI’s recovery values.
The test showed 98% conversion from the oil to soap. the soap contained non-detectable amount of the excess NaOH and free fatty acid. The moisture content of the soap produced was 18.3%.
Based on the tested run, cost analysis was made to test the viability of small-scale soap manufacture. a 50-liter kettle was to be used which can make a six-batch run per day with 300 operating days per year. A plant lay-out was made. The small scale soap manufacture was found to be viable as the rate of return is 47.27% while the payback period is 2.5 years, computed without the time value of money. The total capitalization was 377,610 while the total operating expenses was estimated to be 1,963,799 pesos/annum and the revenue was 2,160,000 pesos.
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