Optimization Study on Solvent Extraction of Oil from Petroleum Nut (Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl.) using Ispropanol as Solvent
Author : Navarro, Emilio Steven Corrales
Major Adviser : Borines, Myra G.
Committee Members : Migo-Sumagang, Maria Victoria P.; Detras, Monet Concepcion M.
Year : 2017
Month : December
Type : Thesis
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Petroleum nut tree (Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl.) is endemic in the Philippines and can be potential source of biofuel. It contains components (n-heptane) similar to the components of gasoline. Its decoction is also known due to its medicinal properties. This study is a continuation of the parametric study by Caraan (2016), wherein all significant parameters were optimized. The parameters considered were: temperature (40°C and 60°C), soaking time (8 hours and 16 hours) and solvent-to-nut-ratio (2 and 5). Flask level soaking was done to determine the optimum conditions, and solvent was evaporated to recover the oil. Proximate analysis was done and it was found out that it contains 7.87% (w/w) crude fat. The highest oil yield obtained was 16.19% with the parametric condition: temperature of 60°C; soaking time of 16 hours and; 5 as solvent-to-nut ratio. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum condition for the system using the numerical optimization. The generated model equation was significant. Two Numerical Optimization were done where the first optimization parameters were set in range (Optimum A) and the other were minimized (Optimum B) while their response goals were both maximized. The parametric conditions for Optimum A were 60°C for the temperature, 15.81 hours for the soaking time and 5 mL/g for the solvent-to-nut ratio. Whereas, the conditions for Optimum B were 40°C for the temperature, 8.65 hours for soaking time and 2.00 mL/g for the solvent-to-nut ratio. Confirmatory test results and the predicted values for Optimum A and B have no significant difference. Preliminary costing was also done to compare the extraction cost of both conditions. Optimum B was selected to be the optimum condition since it is more economical (Php 41.23) than Optimum A (Php 97.10). Based on the comparison among different extraction methods, solvent extraction using isopropanol as solvent has the highest percent oil recovery.
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